By Steven Runciman
Sir Steven Runciman's 3 quantity A background of the Crusades, one of many nice classics of English ancient writing, is being reissued. This quantity offers thoroughly with the 1st campaign and the root of the dominion of Jerusalem. As Runciman says in his preface: 'Whether we regard the Crusades because the so much great and such a lot romantic of Christian adventures, or because the final of the barbarian invasions, they shape a critical truth in medieval background. ahead of their inception the centre of our civilization was once put in Byzantium and within the lands of the Arab caliphate. prior to they light out the hegemony in civilization had handed to western Europe. Out of this transference smooth background used to be born.'
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
199-200. P. S. vol. w, trans. by J. R. Macpherson. Eighth- and Ninth-Century Pilgrims of Rue in Picardy, or Bercaire of Montier-en-Der in Burgundy and his friend Waimer. 1 But their stories showed that only rough and enterprising men could hope to reach Jerusalem. No women seem to have ventured on the pilgrimage. During the eighth century the number of pilgrims increased. Some even came from England; of whom the most famous was Willibald, who died in 781 as Bishop of Eichstadt in Bavaria. ~ Towards the end ofthe century there seems to have been an attempt to organize pilgrimages, under the patronage of Charles the Great.
2I The Reign of Antichrist erect buildings, so long as they were no higher than Moslem buildings and the sound of their bells and services were inaudible to Moslem ears. But there was no relaxation of the rule that the dhimmis should wear distinctive clothes and never ride on horseback; nor should they ever publicly offend against Moslem practices, nor attempt to convert Moslems, nor marry their women, nor speak slightingly of Islam; and they must remain loyal to the state. 1 The milet system established a somewhat different conception of what was understood by nationality.
The Moslems took over certain Christian churches, such as the great cathedral of St John at Damascus, and periodically destroyed many others; while a considerable number of churches and synagogues were continually built. Indeed, later Moslem jurists allowed the dhimmis' right to 1 John of Nikiu, pp. 195, 2C>O-I. a Mardaite lawlessness in the rime of the ·Caliph Moawiya is described by Theophanes, ad ann. 6169, p. 3SS· See also Sathas, Bibliotheca Graeca Medii Aevi, vol u, pp. 45 ft. 2I The Reign of Antichrist erect buildings, so long as they were no higher than Moslem buildings and the sound of their bells and services were inaudible to Moslem ears.