By Peter Evans
Advances in Insect body structure is dedicated to publishing eclectic volumes containing finished and in-depth reports on all elements of insect body structure. First released in 1963, it really is a vital reference resource for invertebrate physiologists and neurobiologists, entomologists, zoologists, and bug biochemists. In 1999, the Institute for medical info published figures displaying that Advances in Insect body structure has an effect issue of 4.5, putting it moment within the hugely aggressive class of Entomology. Key gains * This quantity contains 5 studies at the following subject matters: * The Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubule * Plasticity within the insect fearful process * impartial amino acid absorption within the midgut of lepidopteran larvae * The unpaired median neurons of bugs * FMRFamide comparable peptides: a multifunctional relatives of structurally comparable neuropeptides in bugs
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Having established that CAP2b action in the tubule occurs via only principal cells in the main segment, it was of interest to determine the site of leucokinin's effect on Ca2 signalling, based on previous evidence to suggest that Ca2 was important in mediating leucokinin action. , 1997a). This work showed that leucokinin stimulates a rapid rise in Ca2 i levels in stellate cells in Drosophila tubule. , 1998). This work also supported previous evidence that leucokinin activates chloride shunt conductance, and showed that leucokinin-stimulated ¯uid secretion was inhibited by chloride channel blockers.
Using the much smaller Drosophila tubules, Dow et al. , 1994b). Importantly, this work also showed that exogenous NO donors also stimulated ¯uid transport and increased tubule intracellular cGMP levels. Also, downstream elements of the NO/cGMP signalling pathway cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) I and II, were shown to be expressed in tubules. Interestingly, use of a cGMPdependent phosphodiesterase inhibitor resulted in the acceleration of NOinduced diuresis. Additionally, use of a protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor potentiates ¯uid secretion rates induced by low doses of cGMP.
8 Phylogenetic tree of the Drosophila NHE family members. DmNHE1 resides at 21A1-C1, and has the Genbank accession AF142675; DmNHE2 resides at 39A3-B1, and has the Genbank accession AF239763; DmNHE3 at 26F5-27A2, and has the Genbank accession AF199463. (J. A. T. Dow and M. E. ) THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER MALPIGHIAN TUBULE 25 with the recently characterized crab exchanger, and so may represent the classical invertebrate version of the NHE. All three genes are widely expressed in Drosophila, as determined by reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR (J.