By Stephen T. Holgate MD DSc FRCP FRCPE MRC, Martin K. Church MPHARM PhD DSc, Fernando D Martinez MD, Lawrence M. Lichtenstein MD PhD
This accomplished, clinically orientated full-color source provides you with a wealth of specific info at the prognosis, remedy, and administration of allergic diseases—from bronchial asthma to urticaria. completely up-to-date to mirror contemporary wisdom, this third version beneficial properties the entire most up-to-date advancements in hypersensitivity and immunology. Plus, a constant, logical association places very important info at your fingertips.
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Action plan for treating exacerbations 6. Measures to decrease exposure – Education on relevant avoidance measures: dust mites, domestic animals, cockroach, fungi, pollens, etc. None of the currently available drugs can be said to offer a cure for the disease. There are several drugs that defy classification but play an important role in some cases. d. d. d. nr, Not relevant. d. , nocturnal, or before exercise 30 • Chapter 2 • Asthma • • salmeterol and formoterol, which are long-acting β2-agonists; and the recently introduced leukotriene-modifying drugs, including both receptor antagonists (montelukast, zafirlukast) and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors (zileuton), which may have both bronchodilator and controlling effects.
Thus DNA plasmids, including the gene for an allergen, can be designed to alter an existing immune response. Modifying the immune response could be achieved either by immunizing children before they make a natural response or by altering an existing response. Typical approaches are: • to give nasal or oral immunization to at-risk children, using native protein, in order to try to induce tolerance; • to immunize with antigen linked to IL-12, which will create a Th1 bias; or • to use immunostimulatory signal sequences of DNA, such as synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides that contain CpG motifs, linked directly to proteins; the objective is to create a Th1 response that will prevent or replace a Th2 response.
Susceptibility appears to be associated with specific immune responsiveness to the inhaled dust antigen. The detail of some of the specific questions can be addressed by studying experimental models of EAA. Experimental models There are numerous animal models with which to study the immunopathogenic mechanisms of EAA. 7. The most natural model of EAA is that occurring in cattle (bovine farmers’ lung) exposed to the same moldy hay as farmers, but mice (Mus musculus) are the tools of choice for immunologists, and with inbred strains, and geneinsertion or deletion techniques, there have been major advances in our understanding of EAA.