# An introduction to logic [Lecture notes] by Mark V. Lawson

By Mark V. Lawson

**Read or Download An introduction to logic [Lecture notes] PDF**

**Similar logic & language books**

**Russell/Bradley Dispute and its Significance for Twentieth Century Philosophy**

Within the early 20th century an it appears vague philosophical debate happened among F. H. Bradley and Bertrand Russell. The old final result was once momentous: the dying of the circulation referred to as British Idealism, and its eventual alternative by means of a number of the kinds of analytic philosophy. because then, a belief of this debate and its rights and wrongs has develop into entrenched in English-language philosophy.

**Protein Structure Prediction: A Practical Approach**

The prediction of the third-dimensional constitution of a protein from its amino acid series is an issue confronted via increasingly more organic scientists. This publication presents a realistic advisor to creating those predictions via reviewing options of alternative machine modeling algorithms and highlighting the measure of self belief attributed to them.

**Universals: Studies in Indian Logic and Linguistics**

This selection of articles and evaluate essays, together with many tough to discover items, contains an important and primary experiences of Indian common sense and linguistics ever undertaken. Frits Staal is anxious with 4 simple questions: Are there universals of common sense that go beyond tradition and time? Are there universals of language and linguistics?

**Paradoxes in probability theory**

"Paradoxes offer a automobile for exposing misinterpretations and misapplications of permitted rules. This ebook discusses seven paradoxes surrounding likelihood thought. a few stay the point of interest of controversy; others have allegedly been solved, but the accredited suggestions are demonstrably fallacious.

**Additional resources for An introduction to logic [Lecture notes]**

**Example text**

An we write A1 , . . , An B and we say this is a valid argument. This definition encapsulates many examples of logical reasoning. It is the foundation of mathematics and the basis of trying to prove that programs do what we claim they do. We shall see later that there are examples of logical reasoning that cannot be captured by PL and this will lead us to the generalization of PL called first-order logic or FOL. 1. Here are some examples of valid arguments. 1. p, p → q q. We show that this is a valid argument.

PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC 3. p ∨ q, ¬p q. We show this is a valid argument. p T T F F q T F T F ¬p p ∨ q F T F T T T T F We are only interested in the cases where both p ∨ q and ¬p are true. p F q T ¬p p ∨ q T T We see that if p ∨ q and ¬p are true then q must be true. 4. p → q, q → r p → r. We show this is a valid argument. p T T T T F F F F q T T F F T T F F r T F T F T F T F p→q q→r p→r T T T T F F F T T F T F T T T T F T T T T T T T We are only interested in the cases where both p → q and q → r are true.

The satisfiability problem (SAT) Given a wff decide whether there is some truth assignment to the atoms that makes the wff take the value true. I shall discuss this problem in more detail later and explain why it is so important. The following examples illustrate an idea that we shall develop in the next section. 4. Compare the true tables of p → q and ¬p ∨ q. p T T F F p→q T F T T q T F T F p T T F F q T F T F ¬p F F T T ¬p ∨ q T F T T They are clearly the same. 5. Compare the true tables of p ↔ q and (p → q) ∧ (q → p).